Improving Indoor Localization System Using a Partitioning Technique Based on RSS and ToA
Designing a localization system for an indoor environment faces more challenges because of multipath and interference problems. In this field, the most important techniques used for such environment, are RSS and ToA which need to be improved especially from more interference because of the huge multipath problems. In this paper, a case study of a selected building is chosen in order to apply the proposed technique of this research. Such proposal is based on the PT of the area in the case study into MZ. Each zone is allocated special values for the parameters used to estimate the target positions. WI package is used to simulate the case study area and apply such proposal based on RSS and ToA. The results confirm that the estimated locations are close to the real locations by the average error of (2.8) meter and (0.192) meter for ToA corresponding one zone and four zones respectively. In contrast, the results of our experiment show that the accuracy is improved from an average error of (2.4) meter and (0.217) meter for RSS corresponding one zone and four zones respectively. Such results confirm that dividing the case study area into more zones leads to more accuracy.
L. Christos, M. Adriano, K. Sunwoo, L. Sangwoo, W. Lauri, F. Carlo, “A survey of enabling technologies for network localization, tracking, and navigation,” IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, vol. 20, No.4, pp. 3607 - 3644, Jul 2018.
M. Abdulwahid, O. Shareef Al-Ani, M. F. Mosleh, R. A. Abd-Alhmeed. " Optimal access point location algorithm based real measurement for indoor communication," in Conf. Proceedings of the International, Information and Communication Technology, 2019, pp. 49-55.
Y. Hou, X. Yang, Q. H. Abbasi, "Efficient AoA-based wireless indoor localization for hospital outpatients using mobile devices," Sensors, vol. 18, No.11, pp. 1-17, Oct 2018.
M. M. Abdulwahid, O. A. Shareef Al-Ani, M. F. Mosleh, R. A. Abd-Alhmeed, "A Comparison between Different C-band and mmWave band Frequencies for Indoor Communication,” Journal of Communications , vol. 41, No.10, pp. 892-899, Oct 2019.
 R. W. Boyd, “Location system for wireless local area network (WLAN) using RSSI and time difference of arrival (TDOA) processing,” U.S. Patent 7,899,006, March 1 2011.
S. Azzouzi, M. Cremer, U. Dettmar, R. Kronberger, T. Knie. " New measurement results for the localization of uhf rfid transponders using an angle of arrival (aoa) approach," in Conf. IEEE International Conference on RFID, Orlando, FL, USA, 2011, pp. 91-97.
S. Yang, H. Kim, Y. Son, S. Han, "Three-dimensional visible light indoor localization using AOA and RSS with multiple optical receivers," Lightwave Technology, vol. 32, No.14, pp. 2480-2485, Dec 2014.
Y. Sun, Z. Zhou, S. Tang, X. Ding, J. Yin, Q. Wan. "3D hybrid TOA-AOA source localization using an active and a passive station, " in Conf. IEEE international conference on signal processing (ICSP), Chengdu, 2016, pp. 257-260.
 C. Angelo, A. Fascista., "On the hybrid TOA/RSS range estimation in wireless sensor networks," IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, vol. 17, No.1, pp. 361-371, Oct 2017.
F. M. Ghannouchi, D. Wang, S. Tiwari. "Accurate wireless indoor position estimation by using hybrid TDOA/RSS algorithm," in Conf. IEEE International Conference on Vehicular Electronics and Safety, Istanbul, Turkey, 2012, pp. 437-441.
W. Zhang, K. Liu, W. Zhang, Y. Zhang, J. Gu., "Deep neural networks for wireless localization in indoor and outdoor environments," Neurocomputing, vol. 194, No.1, pp. 279-287, Jun 2016.
Werner, Martin, Indoor location-based service , 1 st ed. Springer, 2014.
I. G¨ uvenc¸, C. Chong, F. Watanabe, H. Inamura., "NLOS identification and weighted least-squares localization for UWB systems using multipath channel statistics," EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing, vol. 2008, No.1, pp. 1-14, Jul 2007.
S. Tomic, B. Marko., "Target localization via integrated and segregated ranging based on RSS and TOA measurements," Sensors, vol. 19, No.2, pp. 230, Jan 2019.
X. Wang, X. Wei, Y. Liu, K. Yang, X. Du., " Fingerprint-based Wi-Fi indoor localization using map and inertial sensors, "International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks, vol. 13, No.12, pp. 1550147717749817, Dec 2017.
Z. Farid, , N. Rosdiadee, I. Mahamod., "Recent advances in wireless indoor localization techniques and system," Journal of Computer Networks and Communications, vol. 2013, No.1, pp. 1-12, Aug 2013.
C. Laoudias, A. Moreira, S. Kim, S. Lee, L. Wirola, C. Fischione., “A Survey of Enabling Technologies for Network Localization, Tracking, and Navigation,” IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, vol. 20, No.1, pp. 3607-3644, Jul 2018.
Z. Tariq, D. M. Cheema, M. Z. Kamran, I. H. Naqvi., “Non-GPS positioning systems: A survey,” ACM Computing Surveys (CSUR), vol. 50, No.4, pp. 1-34, Aug 2017.
A. Alarifi, A. Al-Salman, M. Alsaleh, A. Alnafessah, S. Al-Hadhrami ,M. A. Al-Ammar, et al., “Ultra wideband indoor positioning technologies: Analysis and recent advances,” Sensors, vol. 16, No.5, pp. 1-9, May 2016.
T. Akiyama, M. Sugimoto, H. Hashizume., “Time-of-arrival-based smartphone localization using visible light communication,” in Conf. International Conference on Indoor Positioning and Indoor Navigation (IPIN), Sapporo, 2017, pp.1-7.
C. Hsu, Y. Chen, T. Juang, Y. Wu., “An adaptive Wi-Fi indoor localisation scheme using deep learning,” International Journal of Ad Hoc and Ubiquitous Computing, vol. 30, No.4, pp. 265-274, Apr 2019.
A. K. Paul, T. Sato., “Localization in wireless sensor networks: A survey on algorithms, measurement techniques, applications and challenges,” Journal of Sensor and Actuator Networks, vol. 6, No.4, pp. 1-24, Oct 2017.
X. Luo, W. J. O’Brien, C. L. Julienb., “Comparative evaluation of Received Signal-Strength Index (RSSI) based indoor localization techniques for construction jobsites,” Advanced Engineering Informatics, vol. 25, No.2, pp. 355-363, Apr 2011.
F. Fuschini, E. M. Vitucci, M. Barbiroli, G. Falciasecca, V. Degli-Esposti., “Ray tracing propagation modeling for future small-cell and indoor applications: A review of current techniques,” Radio Science, vol. 50, No.6, pp. 469-485, Jun 2015.
T. S. Rappaport, G. R. MacCartney, M. K. Samimi, S. Sun., “Wideband millimeter-wave propagation measurements and channel models for future wireless communication system design,” IEEE transactions on Communications, vol. 63, No.9, pp. 3029-3056, May 2015.
S. L. Mohammed., “Distance Estimation Based on RSSI and Log-Normal Shadowing Models for ZigBee Wireless Sensor Network,” Engineering and Technical Journal, vol. 34, No.15, pp. 2950-2959, Oct 2016.
 B. Jadhavar, T. Sontakke., “2.4 GHz propagation prediction models for indoor wireless communications within building,” International Journal of Soft Computing and Engineering (IJSCE), vol. 2, No.3, pp. 108-113, Mar 2012.
Z. Ren, G. Wang, Q. Chen, H. Li., “Modelling and simulation of Rayleigh fading, path loss, and shadowing fading for wireless mobile networks,” Simulation Modelling Practice and Theory, vol. 19, No.2, pp. 626-637, Feb 2011.
 Z. Yang, S. Zhang, H. Yang., "Three-dimensional localization algorithm of WSN nodes based on RSSI-TOA and single mobile anchor node,” Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering, vol. 2019, No.1, pp. 1-8, Jul 2019.
A. k. Daraj, A. T. Mohammad, M. F. Mosleh., “Indoor Localization Enhancement Based on Time of Arrival Using Sectoring Method,” International Journal of Intelligent Systems and Applications, vol. 12, No.3, pp. 1-7, Mar 2020.
P. Series., “Effects of building materials and structures on radiowave propagation above about 100 MHz,” Recommendation ITU-R, pp. 2040-1, Jul 2015.
A. Chaisang, S. Promwong., “Indoor localization distance error analysis with UWB wireless propagation model using positioning method,” in Conf. International Conference on Digital Arts Media and Technology (ICDAMT), Phayao, Thailand, 2018, pp. 254-257.